Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Definitions for Cyber World

Definitions for Cyber World

Cyberspace is the total landscape of technology-mediated
communication. This includes not only the internet and the World Wide
Web but also mobile and fixed phone networks, satellite and cable
television, radio, the Global Positioning System (GPS), air traffic control
systems, military rocket guidance systems, sensor networks, etc. As more
devices become interlinked through the processes of digital convergence,
cyberspace is rapidly covering more of our physical world and channels of
communication and expression. Importantly, cyberspace also includes the
people that use these devices and networks.

The Internet 
A subset of cyberspace, the internet is a system of
interconnected computer networks. The internet is comprised of both
hardware and software that facilitate data transfer across a network of
networks, ranging from local to global in scale, and encompassing private,
public, corporate, government and academic networks. Functioning
primarily as a global data exchange system, it carries a wide range of
resources such as email, instant messaging, file transfer, virtual worlds,
peer-to-peer file sharing, and the 

World Wide Web(WWW)
The Web The World Wide Web (or, simply, web) is a more recent
development than the internet, with its origins in the European academic
community of the late 1980s. The web is one of the many services reliant
on the internet. It consists of an assemblage of files (audio, video, text,
and multimedia), each assigned an address, which are connected to one
another through the formation of hyperlinks (more commonly, links). The
contents of the web are (usually) accessed via the internet using software
known as browsers.

User-generated Content 
User-generated content (also usercreated
content) is an umbrella term referring to a wide range of
online materials that are created by internet users themselves. Usergenerated
content has blurred the distinction between the ‘producers’
and ‘consumers’ of information. It is thought to be behind the massive
expansion of the internet in recent years, which now encompasses a wide
variety of blogs, discussion and review sites, social networking sites, and
video and photo sharing sites. Radicalisation Most of the definitions currently in circulation
describe radicalisation as the process (or processes) whereby individuals
or groups come to approve of and (ultimately) participate in the use of
violence for political aims. Some authors refer to ‘violent radicalisation’ in
order to emphasise the violent outcome and distinguish the process from
non-violent forms of ‘radical’ thinking. 

Extremism can be used to refer to political ideologies
that oppose a society’s core values and principles. In the context of liberal
democracies this could be applied to any ideology that advocates racial
or religious supremacy and/or opposes the core principles of democracy
and universal human rights. The term can also be used to describe the
methods through which political actors attempt to realise their aims, that is,
by using means that ‘show disregard for the life, liberty, and human rights
of others’.

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